About Centre for Teaching Thinking (CTT)

The Centre for Teaching Thinking (CTT) is established in 2014 as a consequence of the expansion of the roles and functions of the Centre For Philosophical Inquiry in Education (CPIE) which was founded in January 2006.  Upon expansion, the CTT now consists of three major units, namely, (1) Hikmah Pedagogy for Inquiry & Critical Thinking; (2) Creative Thinking; and (3) Thinking-based Learning.  The CTT is located on the 4th Floor of the Kulliyyah of Education Building, IIUM.

Vision To revive the spirit of philosophical inquiry, intellectual tradition and creativity as advocated by the Islamic World-view

Mission To become an excellent centre for the development and practice of Islamic philosophy education and creativity


The Centre aims to promote philosophy education, the inquiring and critical minds and to provide an opportunity for individuals (participants):

1. To understand and appreciate intellectual traditions, in particular Islamic and scientific thoughts

2. To understand and appreciate philosophy and its ‘use’;

3. To think critically, creatively and ethically so as to make wise judgement;

4.To experience ‘doing’ philosophy and being in the Community of Inquiry, that will foster the growth of shura or democratic processes;

5.To develop ethical understanding, deliberate over moral issues and to find meaning in experience.


Corporate Profile

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Who are/were our clients?


Trainings and Workshops

  • Trainings and workshops on Philosophy for Children (P4C) / HIKMAH (WISDOM) Programme
  • IIUM SLEU Hikmah Programme (for weak students): 15-16th January  2008 and 1 semester of practical session.
  • Kulliyyah of Education DPLI: Philosophical Inquiry (PI) Course : 18th November 2008
  • IIUM Kulliyyah of Education Bachelor and Masters students : 17th – 19th November 2009
  • Kulliyyah of Education, Postgraduate Workshop on Hikmah Programme : 31st June – 1st July & 14th – 15th July 2012
  • Experimental Programme in Sek Ren Puteri Seremban, Sek Ren Islam Al-Huda, Gombak, Sek Keb Pulau Sebang, Melaka, and Sek Ren Tunku Besar, Tampin 2002-2003.
  • After School Programme in Sek Berasrama Penuh Integrasi Sg Pusu, Gombak for Form Three, February – May 2005
  • SLEU Hikmah Programme (Semester II, 2007/2008) Date: 15th January – 4th March 2008
  • SLEU Hikmah Programme (Semester I, 2008/2009) Date: 22nd July – 9th October 2008
  • Sek Rendah Islam Sg Ramal Kajang,  Teacher Tengku Ketina   2010 – present
  • Setiabudi Primary and Secondary Schools  Gombak 2010 – present
  • International Islamic Primary and Secondary Schools Gombak 2010- present
  • Held annually during the long school holidays from 2003 until today.

Awards and Achievements

  1. IIRIE Gold Medal for Research on the Hikmah Pedagogy of Philosophical Inquiry 2010
  2. Juhasni Adila Juperi who won Best Thesis Award 2011 (Social Science and Humanities category) from Nurul Yaqeen Foundation for the thesis entitled “Philosophical Inquiry in Islamic Education and Its Effect in the Development of Questioning Skills Among Secondary School Students”, 16 April 2012.
  3. Juhasni Adila Juperi who has been awarded with the Tunku Abdull Rahman Graduate Student Bursary 2012 from St. Catherine’s College to pursue an MPhil degree in Education at the University of Cambridge, United Kingdom.

International Recognition

  1. Visit by Arthur Rush from UNESCO Bangkok Office, 2009
  2. Visit by Prof Jin Hwan Park, South Korea 2010
  3. Visiting PhD student,  Saeed Naji from ICHS Iran (Founder of P4C Iran)
  4. Write up on CPIE in IAPC Newsletter in NJ Spring 2006, pp 10-11
  5. Write up on CPIE in COIN Newsletter, Singapore
  6. Write up on CPIE in the Philosophy: a School of Freedom (UNESCO, 2007) p. 41-42.

Invitations for Knowledge Sharing




i. Mira goes to the zoo

ii. Mira’s new school

iii. Mira’s thinking about God

iv. Mira and helping the poor




  1. “Encouraging the Discouraged: Engaging Troubled Teenagers Through Philosophical Inquiry”. IIUM Endowment Fund Type B: RM20,000 / EDWB 14-185-1070 (2014). (Principal Researcher: Dr. Norillah Abdullah, Co-Researcher: Dr. Wan Mazwati Wan Yusof & Abdul Shakour Duncan Preece.)
  2. “The Effectiveness of Community of Inquiry for Muslim ESL Learners”. IIUM Endowment Fund Type A: RM5000 / EDWA 14-126-1553 (2014). (Principal Researcher: Dr. Abdul Shakour Duncan Preece, Co-Researcher: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Tunku Badariah Tunku Ahmad)
  3. “The Development of Stimulus Materials for Teaching Form Two Aqidah Using Philosophical Inquiry Method”. IIUM Endowment Fund Type A: RM5000; 2014. (Principal Researcher: Dr. Wan Mazwati Wan Yusof)
  4. “Community Inquiry – A New Inquiry-Based Pedagogy for Realizing the Aspiration of Critical Thinking in the New Blueprint for Education”.FRGS-MOHE/MOE: RM 60,000 (2013:Ongoing). (Principal Researcher: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Suhailah Hussien. Co-Researcher: Prof. Rosnani Hashim, Dr. Muhammad Zahiri Awang Mat, Dr. Wan Mazwati Wan Yusof, Dr. Norillah Abdullah, & Dr. Abdul Shakour Duncan Preece.)


  1. Rosnani Hashim  (2003). An experimental study was conducted to find out the effect of doing Philosophy for Children Programme on critical thinking skills among primary grade 5 students of SRI al Huda, Gombak, Kuala Lumpur. Students, who were from the average ability group, were subjected to doing the programme in Malay language for one hour per week for 12 weeks. The effect on critical thinking skills was measured using The New Jersey Test of Reasoning Skills. Pre and post test showed a significant difference in critical thinking skills
  2. Rosnani Hashim (2004). Rosnani replicated the same study (2003)  but between high and average ability groups of Grade 6 students in Tunku Besar Primary school in Tampin, Negeri Sembilan. Both groups (12 years old students) were doing philosophy using English language for one hour every day for three weeks. Although both groups improved in their reasoning and language skills, it was only statistically significant for the high ability group.
  3. Moomala Othman (2005) PhD Dissertation. A comparative study was conducted between Reader Response and Philosophy for Children (P4C) approaches in teaching English Literature among Form Four students of Sekolah Menengah Sains (Science Secondary Residential School) in Ulu Yam, Selangor. The experimental study reported a significant mean difference in reading abilities for P4C group.  There was a difference in means for thinking but not statistically significant. Probably the groups were already of high ability students good in scientific thinking.
  4. Norillah Abdullah (2009).PhD Dissertation. An experimental study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of the pedagogy of philosophical Inquiry (PI) in enhancing critical thinking and self-confidence among undergraduate students of the Kulliyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge, IIUM. The result showed that critical thinking skills and self-confidence among the treatment group (using PI) improved significantly.
  5. Wan Mazwati Wan Yusoff  (2010). PhD Dissertation. Reviving the Muslim minds through doing philosophy: Implications for curriculum of Muslim education. International Islamic University Malaysia.  Wan argues for the necessity of reviving philosophical inquiry based on study of the Qur’an, Hadith and the Islamic legacy and its inclusion in Muslim educational curriculum.
  6. Abdul Shakour Preece (2011). PhD Dissertation. Developing ELT materials for Muslim learners (EMML): A Qualitative Study, International Islamic University Malaysia. Abdul Shakour developed ELT materials based on the principles of Islamic values and Lipman’s criteria for a philosophical inquiry story and utilized it among CELPAD non-native English language learners.  The method employed the the P4C’s Community of Inquiry.  The study found that these materials were meaningful and motivating for learners, thereby enhancing their English language learning.
  7. Adila Juhasni Juperi(2011). M.Ed. Project.IIUM. Philosophical Inquiry in Islamic Education for Effective Questioning skills. This qualitative study was conducted in the residential science school in Jelebu, Negeri Sembilan.  The results show that by applying the Community of Philosophical Inquiry approach, students’ level of questioning increased to more of higher order and also their quality of reasoning.
  8. Rosnani H.,Suhailah H., &Imran, A. (2014) Ḥikmah (wisdom) pedagogy and students’ thinking and reasoning abilities.   Intellectual Discourse, 22:2 (2014) 119-138.  A self-perceived study using the survey method of 188 Grade 7 to 10 students of the International Islamic School Malaysia who studied using the Hikmah Programme of philosophical inquiry for one year.  The findings were supportive of the positive influence of the pedagogy on students’ abilities to think and reason better after experiencing the programme. Furthermore, the participants demonstrated a considerable improvement in their cognitive and social-communicative skills, as evidenced in the scores obtained for the post-programme’s test.


No. Name Specialization M.ED/PHD Status Title of Thesis
1. Akakba Khadidja Curriculum & Instruction M.ED Ongoing The Effectiveness of the Community of Inquiry in Teaching English For Non-English speakers
2. Khamisah Hj. Salehhuddin Educational Psychology M.ED Ongoing Using Philosophy Inquiry to Develop Cognitive and Social Skills of IIUM Educare Children
3. Samar Abdulla Social Foundations of Education M.ED Completed in 2014 How Islamic Studies Curriculum Empowered Students
4. Al Munadia Teaching of Thinking M.ED Ongoing The Impact of Dayah Muzakarah Method on Critical Thinking Skills
5. Mariya Seemin Khan Social Found. PHD Ongoing A Critical Notion of What it is to be an Educated Muslim Woman of Today
6. Wirawani Kamarulzaman Social Found. PHD Ongoing School Based Assessment (SBA) and the Promotion of Critical Thinking Skills in a Malaysian Primary School
7. Popoola Kareem Hamed Curri. & Instructn. M.ED Ongoing Investigating the Integration of Creativity into the Curriculum of Islamic Private Schools in Malaysia”
8. Shamsuddin Abdullah Teaching of Thinking M.ED Ongoing A Study on teaching Thinking Using Philosophical Inquiry in an E-Learning Environment at CFS, IIUM.
9. Abdul Shakour Preece Curri. & Instructn. PHD Completed in 2011 Developing ELT Materials for Muslim Learners (EMML)
10. Wan Mazwati Wan Yusoff Teaching of Thinking PHD Completed in 2010 Reviving The Muslim Minds Through Doing Philosophy: Implications for Curriculum of Muslim Education
11. Norillah Abdullah Teaching of Thinking PHD Completed in 2009 An experimental study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of the pedagogy of philosophical Inquiry (PI) in enhancing critical thinking and selfconfidence among undergraduate students of the Kulliyah of Islamic Revealed Knowledge
12. Moomala Othman Teaching of Thinking   Completed in 2005 A comparative study was conducted between Reader Response and Philosophy for Children (P4C) approaches in teaching English Literature among Form Four students of Sekolah Menengah Sains (Science Secondary Residential School) in Ulu Yam, Selangor.


Conference Paper

  1. “Philosophy for Children in the Malaysian Educational System – Reality or fantasy?”. Dr. Abdul Shakour Duncan Preece at NAACI 2014 Conference on Philosophy for Children and Its Diverse Application,  25 to 27 June 2014 at Laval University, Quebec, Canada.
  2. “Make it Mean! Using a ‘Community of Inquiry’ To Improve Language Skills in the ESL Classroom.” Dr. Abdul Shakour Duncan Preece at Oxford Education Research Symposium at St Edmund Hall March 17-20, 2013, Oxford, UK.